Wednesday, June 10, 2015


Wireless Sensor Networks (Wireless Sensor Network) consists of a large number of sensor nodes free. Each node has the ability to send, receive and detect. Besides sensor node is also equipped with processing equipment Data, data storage or memory Sementra, communications equipment and power supply or battery. In this paper, we describe a routing protocol in Wireless Sensor Network with using the approach of grouping (Cluster based). Routing to be simulated, made based on each cluster node. Issue will be presented, namely how planning configuration, simulation-based cluster implementations WSN routing and how to influence methods This on the performance of the system. In the cluster-based routing method of calculation based on the distance and energy efficiency is used, because the node sends information through cluster head, then the energy can be saved for extend the lifetime of the network. Results are expected in this paper is create a routing path quickly and efficiently the use of energy, energy that is required one node for one-time delivery of data at 200-500 bits can be saved up to 1μJ

At the first step is to create a program for input the number of nodes to be used and also save the position of the node that appears to be note the location of the node. Then the next process is to determine cluster head, cluster head in this case is not taken of the node that was raised at the beginning of the process, but rather generate new nodes to be used as the cluster head, but to cluster head shape and node colors distinguished in appearance. then if the existing cluster head then it will continue to the next process is the formation of clusters but if there is no cluster head will do the process The same is to determine the cluster head. In the cluster formation process is done by calculating the distance between all nodes and each cluster head and then after that it will compared to getting the closest distance if the nodes are known then the closest node will serve as members of the cluster. after cluster formation is the process of routing from node to get to the sink, to program routing formation as discussed in theory in the previous chapter, the node will immediately communicate to each cluster head that indicated by the lines on the display, then of cluster head will communicate with the cluster head nearest to send information to the sink. 

In Figure 4 is a display node positions that is located random, in this simulation are assume darea used is 450x500 m2, then node positions will be stored for use in the formation of clusters that can be seen in Figure 5. 
In the figure 6 is a display of all routing path may be traversed node for transmit data towards the sink, each color a head node cluster with cluster, the data given cluster head will be sent directly to sink 

On this simulation there are some parameters that used for experiments, among others, N = 50 nodes, simulation = 450x500 m2 area, Ei = 1-2 Joule, EFS = 10 pj, pj Emp = 0.0013, d0 = 87.7 m, the data bytes = 0-500, where Ei is the initial energy given to each node is between 1-2 joules and d0 a threshold. So that the amount of use the energy used at the node with l-bit data and the distance d can be calculated by equation (1) and (2) following:

for the receivers are: ERX (l) = l. Eelec (2) Where ETX is energy needed for ERX is sending data and energy needed to receive data, it is assumed node while sending and receiving requires energy consumption Eelec same.  
Figure 7 and shows that the relationship between the energy needed by the node to transmit data is directly proportional, the large bits of data transmitted, the more energy is needed and so does the distance. In the simulations performed by the data transmission 200bit - 500bit, the location of sources and sinks fixed so that changes is the cluster and distance delivery, from several experiments
found that for one-time delivery of data it takes energy - flatten 1 μJ, but this only to make one shipment on one node.
In the figure 8 is a graphic image reduction of energy used to perform sending data to the sink. In the cluster method This base, when a node to get the data and wanted mengirimkaanya to sink, then this data first should be sent to the cluster headnya, then after The cluster head which sends data to sink. In the process - the process node and also cluster head will experience a reduction in energy, the energy used is affected by distance delivery and also the amount of data sent. on trial amount of data sent is as much 500 bits of data and the distance is different - different each experiment. The value of the total energy required can be seen in Figure 8 for each time experiment, the energy required is not fixed because the distance is always changing.
In the experiment used three sources different positions will transmit as much data 500 bits continuously until the energy cluster headnya exhausted. After doing several times Experimental chart as shown 4:11 where each cluster head takes differ depending on the initial energy possessed by The cluster head and also the distance up to the sink.

Link download Jurnal :,d.c2E


Monday, May 25, 2015


Discussion of Results Review

In WSN we see the network components as follows :
  • Sensor motes ( Field devices ) , field devices installed in the process and should be capable of routing packets on behalf of other devices . In most cases they characterize or control the process or process equipment . Routers are a special type of field devices that do not have sensors or process control equipment and thus do not control the process itself .
  •  Gateway or Access Point is a gateway that enables communication between the application and the host device .
  • Network Manager . A Network Manager is responsible for the configuration of the network , scheduling communications between devices ( ie , configure Super frame ) , the routing table management and monitoring and health reporting network
  • Security Manager . Security Manager is responsible for system security , and data storage .
Simplicity in Wireless Sensor Network nodes with limited resources makes them very vulnerable to various attacks. This journal identifies and categorizes be some attacks in Wireless Sensor Network as follows:
  •  Denial of Service
Denial of Service (DoS) is any event that reduces or eliminates the ability of the network to perform the functions expected.
  • Sybil
Sybil attack is defined as "an evil device that can take multiple identities". The enemy can "be in more than one place at once" as a single node serving multiple identities to other nodes in the network can significantly reduce the effectiveness of the scheme as fault tolerant storage, distribution, dispersity, and multipath.
  • Wormhole
In the wormhole attack, the enemy entered through the tunnel received messages in one part of the network through a low latency link and rotate them in different sections. The enemy is located close to the base station may be able to truly disrupt routing by creating wormholes well placed.
  • Sinkhole (black hole)
Sinkhole attacks generally work by making a compromised node look very attractive to the surrounding nodes with respect to routing algorithms and captivate almost all traffic from a specific area through a compromised node, create a sinkhole metaphor with the enemy in the center. Because node at, or near, the road which follow the package has many opportunities to mengutakatik application data, sinkhole attacks can activate many other attacks (selective forwarding, for example).
  • Selective Forwarding
In the selective forwarding attacks, malicious nodes behave like black holes and may refuse to forward certain messages and simply drop them, ensuring that they do not spread any further. However, attackers like to run the risk that neighboring nodes will conclude that he has failed and decided to look for another route. A more subtle form of this attack is when an enemy selectively forwarding the packet. Enemies who are interested in suppressing or modifying packets originating from multiple nodes select believed to forward traffic and limits residual suspicions of his guilt.
  • Impersonation
Replication node. Also called impersonation. An attacker tried
to add nodes to an existing sensor network by copying (replication) node ID of sensor nodes exist. Node replication attack can occur if the enemy can copy the identification of network nodes. In this way the package can be damaged, misrouted or deleted, and if the enemy is able to replicate it is possible that the cryptographic key can be disclosed.
  • Eavesdropping / Eavesdropping
By listening to the data, the enemy can easily find the content of the communication. Network traffic is also vulnerable to monitoring and eavesdropping. It should be no cause for concern given a strong security protocols, but monitoring can lead to attacks similar to those described previously. It can also cause an attack wormhole or a black hole.
  • Traffic Analysis
Traffic analysis attacks forged in which the base station can be determined with the observation that most of the packets are being routed to one particular node. If the enemy can compromise the base station can make the network useless.
  • Mote Class
Also called insider attacks. The attackers have authorized participants in sensor networks. Insider attacks can be mounted either on the compromised sensor nodes running malicious code or an enemy who has stolen the key material, code, and data from a legitimate node, and then use one or more Class Laptop device to attack the network.
  • Laptop Class
Also called Outsider attacks. Attackers have special access to a network of sensors. Class Laptop attacks can have access to more powerful devices, Class Laptop attacks may have high bandwidth, lowlatency communication channels are not available to ordinary sensor nodes, which allows the attacker to coordinate their Efforts.
3. Precautions
In this section, we discuss some precautions.
  •  Attacks Outsider and link layer
Most of the outside attacks against the sensor network routing protocols can be prevented with a simple link layer encryption and authentication keys shared global use. Link layer security mechanisms using shared global key Bena really effective also in the presence of an insider attack. Insiders can attack the network by spoofing or inject false routing information, creating sinkholes, selectively forwarding packets, using a Sybil attack. However, more sophisticated defense mechanisms are still urgently needed to provide adequate protection against insider attacks and worm holes.
  • The Sybil Attack
Using this joint global key
allow people inside to impersonate any (maybe even none) node. Identity must be verified. In the traditional setting, this may be done by using public key cryptography, but generating and verifying digital signatures is beyond the ability of the sensor node. One solution is to have a unique node symmetric key with a base station that is reliable.
  • Wormhole and Sinkhole
Wormhole and sinkhole attack is very difficult to defend against, especially when both are used in combination. Wormholes are difficult to detect because they use private, out-of-band channel seen by the underlying sensor network. A technique for detecting wormhole requires a very tight time synchronization and thus are not feasible for the majority of sensor networks. Since it is very difficult to retrofit existing protocol with the defense against this attack, the best solution is to carefully design the routing protocol where the wormhole and sinkholes that means.
  • Leveraging Global Knowledge
A major challenge in securing large sensor networks is their inherent self-organizing, decentralized nature. When the limited network size or topology structured or controlled, global knowledge can be utilized in security mechanisms. To take into account topology changes due to radio interference or failure node, the node will periodically update the base station with the right information. Drastic changes or suspicious to the topological node may indicate a compromise, and appropriate action can be taken.
  • Selective Forwarding
Multipath routing can be used to fight the kind of selective forwarding attacks. Messages routed through that node actually decipher completely protected against attacks involving selective forwarding node most disturbed and still offer some protection each time probabilistic node disrupted. By allowing nodes to dynamically choose this package next hop probabilistically from a set of candidates can further reduce the possibility of enemy gain full control of the data stream.